Women's Health Issues

Breast Health

Understanding Breast Health

Anatomy of the Breasts
Each breast has 15 to 20 sections (lobes), which are arranged like the petals of a daisy. Each lobe has many smaller lobules, which end in dozens of tiny bulbs that can produce milk.
Normal Breast Development and Changes
Breast development occurs in distinct stages, first before birth, and again at puberty and during the childbearing years. Changes also occur to the breasts during menstruation and when a woman reaches menopause.
Risk Factors for Breast Cancer
Factors that appear to raise a woman's risk for breast cancer include advancing age, family history, benign breast conditions, and a late menopause.
Breast Health: Three-Step Plan for Preventive Care
To monitor your breast health, you should do a monthly breast self-exam, get a year clinical exam, and get mammograms as directed by your doctor.
How to Perform a Breast Self-Examination (BSE)
By doing BSE regularly, you get to know how your breasts normally feel so that you are more apt to detect any change.

Breast Tests & Procedures

Breast Biopsy
A breast biopsy is a procedure in which samples of breast tissue are removed with a special biopsy needle or during surgery to determine if cancer or other abnormal cells are present.
Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
A breast MRI is a procedure in which large magnets, radiofrequencies, and a computer are used to take detailed pictures of the breast in order to search for abnormalities that may signal the presence of cancer.
Breast Scan
A breast scan is a procedure in which nuclear radiology is used to assess and diagnose various conditions, such as tumors, abscesses, hematomas, organ enlargement, and cysts, as well as organ function and blood flow to the tissue.
Breast Ultrasound
Ultrasound, or sound wave technology is used to examine breast tissue. It may also be used to assess blood flow to areas inside the breasts.
Frequently Asked Questions: Mammograms
Timing your mammogram when your breasts are not tender is important. In premenopausal women, this is usually one week after a menstrual period.
Breast-Conserving Surgery
A lumpectomy is a type of breast-conserving surgery in which a cancerous lump and a portion of the breast tissue around the cancerous lump are removed, leaving the breast intact.
Mastectomy
A mastectomy is a surgical procedure in which all or a portion of a breast is removed as a part of a treatment plan for breast cancer.
Breast Augmentation Surgery
Breast augmentation surgery is a common plastic surgery procedure done to improve the appearance of a woman's breasts. The surgery uses breast implants to increase the size or the fullness of the breasts.

Common Breast Conditions

Mastalgia (Breast Pain)
The most common type of breast pain is associated with the menstrual cycle and is nearly always hormonal.
Common Benign Lumps
The two most common types of benign breast lumps are cysts and fibroadenomas. A cyst is a fluid-filled sac that develops in the breast tissue. Fibroadenomas are solid, smooth, firm, benign lumps that are most commonly found in women in their late teens and early 20s.
Nipple Problems and Discharge
Nipple conditions are a common benign breast condition affecting many women. Some problems are related to lactation, and others are not.
Breast Infections and Inflammations
The most common type of breast infection is lactational mastitis, which occurs when a woman is breastfeeding. The nipples become cracked and sore, allowing bacteria from the baby's mouth to enter the ducts and rapidly multiply in the milk.
Diagnosing Benign (Noncancerous) Breast Conditions
To diagnose a breast condition, your doctor will examine your breasts and may order imaging tests or a biopsy.
Fibrocystic Breast Changes
Detailed information on common fibrocystic breast changes, including what fibrocystic changes feel like

About Breast Cancer

Signs and Symptoms of Breast Cancer
Early breast cancer usually does not cause pain and may cause no symptoms at all.
Breast Cancer Statistics
Breast cancer ranks second among cancer deaths in women after lung cancer.
Risk Factors for Breast Cancer
Factors that appear to raise a woman's risk for breast cancer include advancing age, family history, benign breast conditions, and a late menopause.
How Is Breast Cancer Diagnosed?
It is important to remember that a lump or other changes in the breast, or an abnormal area on a mammogram, may be caused by cancer or by other, less serious problems.

Breast Cancer Treatment

What to Know About Your Treatment Choices for Breast Cancer
The good news is that breast cancer can be treated successfully. Treatments include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, or any combination of these. Here's a closer look at each.
Stages of Breast Cancer
When breast cancer is diagnosed, your doctor will order tests to find out if the cancer has spread from the breast to other parts of the body. This is called staging and is an important step toward planning a treatment program.
Surgery for Breast Cancer Treatment
Surgery to remove as much of the cancer as possible is the primary treatment for breast cancer. Today, women have many surgical options and choices.
Breast Reconstruction
Breast reconstruction surgery involves creating a breast mound that comes as close as possible to the form and appearance of the natural breast.
Lymphedema After a Mastectomy
Whenever the normal drainage pattern in the lymph nodes is disturbed or damaged—often during surgery to remove the lymph nodes—the arm may swell. This swelling, caused by too much fluid, is called lymphedema.
Post-Mastectomy Prosthesis
A prosthesis can be worn against the skin, inside the pocket of a mastectomy bra, or attached to the chest wall. Prosthetic devices are designed to look feminine and be comfortable.
Radiation Therapy for Breast Cancer Treatment
Radiation therapy is a process that precisely sends high levels of radiation directly to the cancer cells. Radiation done after surgery can kill cancer cells that may not be seen during surgery.
Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer Treatment
Your oncologist will determine how long and how often you will have chemotherapy treatments. Chemotherapy can be administered intravenously or by pill, and is usually a combination of drugs.
Other Treatments for Breast Cancer
Other treatments for breast cancer include hormone therapy, used to prevent the growth, spread, and recurrence of the cancer, adjuvant therapy, and biological therapy.
About Tamoxifen
Tamoxifen has been used to treat both advanced and early stage breast cancer. More recently, tamoxifen is being used as an additional therapy following primary treatment for early stage breast cancer.
About Taxol
Taxol, or paclitaxel, is a drug used for treating certain women who have advanced breast or ovarian cancer. Paclitaxel is a compound that is extracted from the bark of the Pacific yew tree.
About Clinical Trials: Information from the National Cancer Institute
Clinical trials are studies, managed by government agencies, educational institutions, private not-for-profit organizations, or commercial businesses, to develop, produce, and evaluate the effectiveness of new treatments and therapies for diseases.
Breast Cancer Prevention Trial (BCPT)
BCPT was a clinical trial that studied tamoxifen as a prevention therapy for those at high risk for breast cancer. Data showed the results of tamoxifen treatment to be "highly significant," with a 49 percent reduction in the number of invasive breast cancers seen across all age groups.
Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR)
STAR was a clinical trial of the drug raloxifene that included more than 19,000 postmenopausal women at increased risk for breast cancer. The results showed that raloxifene worked as well as tamoxifen at reducing breast cancer risk.
Hope on the Horizon for Breast Cancer
In recent years, researchers have discovered new and better ways to detect and treat breast cancer—and to keep it from coming back.

Gynecological Health

Gynecological Conditions

Endometriosis
Women with endometriosis develop tissue that looks and acts like endometrial tissue outside the uterus, usually on other reproductive organs inside the pelvis or in the abdominal cavity.
Pelvic Pain
Pelvic pain is a common complaint among women. Its nature and intensity may fluctuate, and its cause is often obscure.
Uterine Fibroids
Some estimates say that 20 to 50 percent of women of reproductive age have fibroids, although not all are diagnosed. In most cases, fibroids are benign.
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)
Untreated, PID can cause infertility and can also lead to chronic infection or even peritonitis.
Hysterectomy
Hysterectomy is the surgical removal of the uterus. Different portions of the uterus, as well as other organs, may be removed at the same time.

Gynecological Cancer

Cervical Cancer
Cervical cancer develops from abnormal cells on the surface of the cervix that spread deeper or to other tissues or organs. This type of cancer occurs most often in women older than 40.
Endometrial Cancer
Cancer of the endometrium is a disease in which cancerous cells are found in the lining of the uterus. It is highly curable when found early.
Ovarian Cancer
Ovarian cancer can develop in one of three types—the first, on the surface of the ovary; the second, in the cells that form the eggs; the third, in the cells that produce female hormones.
Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome
People with this syndrome have dark moles around the mouth, nose, and eyes, as well as multiple polyps in the intestines.
Ovarian Cancer as Part of Lynch Syndrome
A woman with this type of hereditary colon cancer is at increased risk for ovarian cancer.
Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome (Gorlin Syndrome)
The risk for ovarian cancer and skin cancer is increased with basal cell nevus syndrome, a rare genetic disorder.
Uterine Cancer
Cancer of the uterus usually occurs around the time menopause begins. The occasional reappearance of bleeding should not be considered simply part of menopause, but should be checked by a doctor.
Vaginal Cancer
Cancer of the vagina is rare. Certain factors thought to raise the risk for this type of cancer include advancing age, history of cervical cancer, and infection with the human papillomavirus.
Vulvar Cancer
Nearly 90 percent of vulvar cancers are squamous cell carcinomas. Melanoma is the second most common type of vulvar cancer.
Hereditary Breast Ovarian Cancer Syndrome (BRCA1/BRCA2)
A woman with this syndrome may develop breast cancer before age 50 and is at higher risk for developing cancer in both breasts or in both the breasts and ovaries.

Gynecology Tests & Procedures

Cervical Biopsy
A cervical biopsy is a procedure performed to remove tissue from the cervix to test for abnormal or precancerous conditions, or cervical cancer.
Colposcopy
Colposcopy is a procedure that uses an instrument with a magnifying lens and a light, called a colposcope, to examine the cervix (opening to the uterus) and vagina for abnormalities.
Cystoscopy for Women
Cytoscopy is a procedure in which a long, lighted scope is used to examine the urinary tract, bladder, urethra, and openings to the ureters and is used when problems with the urinary tract are suspected.
Dilation and Curettage (D and C)
A dilation and curettage procedure, also called a D and C, is a surgical procedure in which the cervix is dilated so that the cervical canal and uterine lining can be scraped with a spoon-shaped instrument to remove abnormal tissues.
Endometrial Ablation
Endometrial ablation is a procedure to permanently remove a thin tissue layer of the lining of the uterus to stop or reduce excessive or abnormal bleeding in women for whom childbearing is complete.
Endometrial Biopsy
An endometrial biopsy is a procedure performed to obtain a small tissue sample from the lining of the uterus.
Laparoscopy
Laparoscopy is a procedure that utilizes a laparoscope, a thin flexible tube containing a video camera to examine the organs of the abdominal cavity.
Loop Electrosurgical Excision Procedure (LEEP)
Loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) uses a wire loop heated by electric current to remove cells and tissue as part of the diagnosis and treatment for abnormal or cancerous conditions in a woman’s lower genital tract.
Pap Test
A Pap test is a screening test to collect and microscopically examine cells taken from the cervix.
Pelvic Ultrasound
Ultrasound, or sound wave technology, is used to examine the organs and structures in the female pelvis.
Uterine Artery Embolization
This procedure, also be referred to as uterine fibroid embolization (UFE), is a minimally-invasive surgery that involves identifying which arteries supply blood to the fibroids and then blocking off those arteries.
Hysterectomy
Hysterectomy is the surgical removal of the uterus. Different portions of the uterus, as well as other organs, may be removed at the same time.
Robotic Hysterectomy
Hysterectomy is the surgical removal of a woman's uterus. When this surgery is done through small incisions using a thin, lighted scope with a camera on the end (a laparoscope), it is called a laparoscopic hysterectomy.

Heart Disease and Stroke

Heart Disease

Anatomy and Function of the Coronary Arteries
Coronary arteries supply blood to the heart muscle. There are two main coronary arteries: the right and the left.
Coronary Heart Disease
A person with coronary heart disease has an accumulation of fatty deposits in the coronary arteries. These deposits narrow the arteries and can decrease or block the flow of blood to the heart.
What You Can Do to Prevent Atherosclerosis
Atherosclerosis can be devastating, causing strokes, heart attacks and death. The good news is that you can take steps to protect yourself from this disease.
A Woman's Guide to Beating Heart Disease
Surveys show fewer than one in 10 women perceive heart disease as their greatest health threat. But it's the nation's number one killer, and women are its prime target.
Angina Pectoris
Angina pectoris occurs when the heart muscle doesn't receive enough blood and oxygen for a given level of work.
Aspirin and Your Heart: Should You or Shouldn’t You?
Although aspirin is a common over-the-counter medication, it’s not appropriate for everyone.
Learning to Live with Heart Disease
Millions of people diagnosed with heart disease enjoy active, satisfying lives. Instead of looking on their diagnoses as sentences to be invalids, they have used them as catalysts to make positive changes in their lives.
Understanding Prehypertension
Prehypertension is a term that alerts people to the risk of developing chronic high blood pressure if they don’t take timely steps to improve their lifestyle habits.
High Blood Pressure/Hypertension
High blood pressure, or hypertension, increases the risk for coronary heart disease (heart attack) and stroke (brain attack).
Twelve Weeks to a Heart-Healthy Lifestyle
Heart disease is a killer, but you can do plenty to reduce your risk and prolong your life. Research shows that making lifestyle changes can decrease your risk of cardiovascular heart disease and help you control it if you already have it.
Exercise Your Way to a Healthy Heart
Physical inactivity is just as big a risk factor for heart disease as high blood pressure and smoking are. So, be the exception rather than the rule. Here are eight ways to exercise for a healthier heart.
Heart Attacks and Women
For many women, a heart attack may feel like a strange discomfort in the back or some other easily ignored sign, instead of crushing chest pain.
Heart Attack
A heart attack occurs when the blood supply is cut off from the heart muscle, usually because of a blood clot. Without blood and oxygen, the muscle cells are damaged and die.

Stroke

Overview of Stroke
Stroke occurs when blood flow to the brain is disrupted. The disruption is caused when either a blood clot or piece of plaque blocks one of the vital blood vessels in the brain or when a blood vessel in the brain bursts.
Ministrokes Deserve Maximum Attention
A ministroke, or transient ischemic attack (TIA), is a brief episode of stroke symptoms caused by temporary interruption of blood flow to the brain. Most people suffer TIAs without realizing it.
Evaluation Procedures for Stroke
Tests that may be used to help diagnose a stroke include a CT scan or MRI, and an electroencephalogram.
Stroke Recovery Begins with Rehabilitation
A stroke can cause problems with speech, vision, memory, balance or coordination. It can leave part of the body weakened or paralyzed, among other physical problems.
Treatment for Stroke
Although there is no cure for stroke, advanced medical and surgical treatments are now available, giving many stroke victims hope for optimal recovery.
Signs and Symptoms of Stroke
If you notice any of these symptoms, call 911 or your local emergency medical service immediately. Treatment for stroke is most effective when started as soon as possible.
Rehabilitation for Stroke
Stroke rehabilitation works best when the patient, family, and rehabilitation staff works together as a team. Family members must learn about impairments and disabilities caused by the stroke and how to help the patient achieve optimal function again.
Types of Stroke
Strokes are classified as either ischemic or hemorrhagic. Ischemic strokes are caused by blockage of an artery. Hemorrhagic strokes are caused by bleeding in the brain.
Risk Factors for Stroke
The most important controllable risk factor for stroke is controlling high blood pressure. Blood pressure of 140/90 or higher can damage the arteries that supply blood to the brain.
Effects of Stroke (Brain Attack)
When an area of the brain is damaged, which typically occurs with a stroke, an impairment may result. An impairment is the loss of normal function of part of the body. Sometimes, an impairment may result in a disability, or inability to perform an activity in a normal way.

Cardiovascular Tests & Procedures

Electrocardiogram
An electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG) is a simple and fast procedure that is used to evaluate the electrical activity of the heart, which is measured in "waves." Variations in the waves may indicate problems with the heart.
Exercise Electrocardiogram
An exercise ECG is a simple and fast procedure that is used to evaluate the electrical activity of the heart's response to stress or exercise.
Echocardiogram
An echocardiogram is a procedure in which ultrasonic sound waves are used to assess the heart's function and structures.
Exercise Echocardiogram
An exercise echocardiogram is a procedure in which ultrasound, or sound wave technology, is used to asses the heart's response to stress or exercise.
Dobutamine Stress Echocardiogram
A dobutamine stress echocardiogram is a diagnostic procedure in which an intravenous medication called dobutamine is used when an exercise stress test is not recommended. Dobutamine mimics the effects of exercise on the heart.
Cardiac Catheterization
Cardiac catheterization is a procedure in which a catheter is moved through a blood vessel to the heart in order to better diagnose coronary heart disease, valvular heart disease, congestive heart failure and other heart conditions.
Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI), Coronary Angioplasty, and Stent Placement
During percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), a special catheter (long hollow tube) is inserted into coronary arteries that are blocked as a result of coronary artery disease (CAD), restoring arterial blood flow to the heart tissue without open-heart surgery.
Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery (CABG)
Coronary artery bypass surgery is performed to treat a blockage or narrowing of one or more of the coronary arteries, thus restoring the blood supply to the heart muscle.
Carotid Endarterectomy/Carotid Artery Stenting
Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) may be performed to treat a blockage or narrowing of the carotid arteries, thus improving blood supply to the brain. Carotid artery angioplasty with stenting (CAS) is a procedure currently being used on selected patients who are at high risk for surgery.
Carotid Artery Duplex Scan
A carotid artery duplex scan is used to assess blockage or narrowing of the carotid arteries of the neck and/or the branches of the carotid artery.
Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA)
Magnetic resonance angiography – also called a magnetic resonance angiogram or MRA – is a type of MRI that looks specifically at the body’s blood vessels.
Computed Tomography Angiography (CTA)
CT angiography is a type of medical exam that combines a CT scan with an injection of a special dye to produce pictures of blood vessels and tissues in a part of your body.

Obesity

Understanding Obesity

Overview of Obesity
Obesity is a serious, chronic disease that can inflict substantial harm to a person’s health. Learn about obesity causes and obesity health effects.
Determining Your Body Mass Index
Your BMI gives a fairly accurate assessment of how much of your body is composed of fat.
What's Your Healthy Weight?
In today's society, there's much confusion over what constitutes a healthy weight. Here are some ways to find out where you stand on the weight issue.
Preventing Obesity
Given the chronic diseases and conditions associated with obesity and the fact that obesity is difficult to treat, prevention is extremely important.

Obesity & Other Health Problems

6 Facts on Obesity
We've all heard warnings, yet many of us keep gaining weight. More than half of American adults are overweight or obese, says the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Metabolic Syndrome
Most people who have metabolic syndrome have insulin resistance. This may be a beginning of the development of type 2 diabetes.
Type 2 Diabetes
A person with type 2 diabetes either can't make enough insulin or can't properly use it.
Sleep Apnea
Sleep apnea is a breathing disorder in which a person experiences brief interruptions of breathing during sleep.
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)/Heartburn
Gastroesophageal reflux is the return of acidic stomach juices, or food and fluids, back up into the esophagus.

Treating Obesity

Could Weight-Loss Surgery Save Your Life?
If you are obese, surgery to lose weight may be safer than carrying around those extra pounds. But is losing weight worth the risks associated with surgery? Take a look at the latest research.
Medical Treatment for Obesity
Medical treatment can help with weight loss if your own efforts are unsuccessful—or if you have a medical condition that makes it crucial to lose weight.
Even with Weight-Loss Drugs, Losing Pounds Isn't Easy
Out of the millions Americans who are overweight and go on a diet each year, many regain all or a part of the weight they lose within five years.
Maintaining Weight Loss
Keeping extra weight off requires effort and commitment, just as losing weight does.
Obesity Treatment Overview
Whatever treatment plan a person follows, losing weight slowly will be more effective and healthy over the long term.

Deciding on Surgery

Gastric Bypass (Malabsorptive) Surgery
Bariatric surgery is a procedure that alters the process of digestion and is currently the best treatment option for producing lasting weight loss in obese patients when traditional methods have not been effective.
Gastric Stapling (Restrictive) Surgery
Gastric stapling surgery is a type of weight loss surgery that limits the amount of food a person can eat.

Osteoporosis

Understanding Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis
Osteoporosis causes a loss of bone mass and destruction of bone tissue. The bones most often affected are the hips, spine, and wrists.
Bone Density Test
A bone density test measures the strength and density of your bones as you approach menopause and, when the test is repeated sometime later, can help determine how quickly you are losing bone mass and density.
Preventing Broken Bones
Bones are tough and resilient, but if you push them hard enough—if you fall on a hard surface, for instance—they can crack or break.
Hip Fracture
A hip fracture is classified by the specific area of the break and the type of break(s) in the bone. It is a serious injury and requires immediate medical attention.
Taking a Break from Osteoporosis Medicines
Have you taken bisphosphonates to prevent or treat osteoporosis for several years? Depending on your fracture risk, you may be able to take a drug holiday.
Osteoporosis: Evaluate Your Risk
Many people are unaware they have osteoporosis until they have advanced symptoms, which may include a broken hip or wrist, low back pain or a hunched back.

Orthopedic Tests and Procedures

Bone Scan
A bone scan is used to examine the various bones of the skeleton to identify areas of physical and chemical changes in bone.
Bone Densitometry
Bone densitometry is used primarily to diagnose osteoporosis and to determine fracture risk.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the Bones, Joints, and Soft Tissues
Magnetic resonance imaging uses a combination of a large magnet, radiofrequencies, and a computer to produce detailed images of structures within the body.
X-rays of the Spine, Neck, or Back
This procedure may be used to diagnose back or neck pain, fractures or broken bones, arthritis, degeneration of the disks, tumors, or other problems.
Hip Replacement Surgery
Hip replacement surgery is a procedure in which a damaged hip joint is replaced with an artificial hip joint. It is most commonly recommended as a treatment for severe osteoarthritis or damage due to fracture.
Computed Tomography (CT or CAT) Scan of the Spine
A CT scan of the spine may be performed to assess the spine for a herniated disk, tumors and other lesions, the extent of injuries, structural anomalies such as spina bifida, blood vessel malformations, or other conditions.
Kyphoplasty
Kyphoplasty is used to treat fractures in the bones of the spine in which the doctor first inflates a balloon-like device in the bone to make space which is filled with cement.

Plastic Surgery

Breast Augmentation Surgery
Breast augmentation surgery is a common plastic surgery procedure done to improve the appearance of a woman's breasts. The surgery uses breast implants to increase the size or the fullness of the breasts.
Overview of Plastic Surgery
Plastic surgery is a surgical specialty involved with the reconstruction of facial and body tissue defects caused by illness, trauma, or birth disorders.
Plastic Surgery Techniques
Two common techniques are endoscopic surgery, performed with a tubular probe, and flap surgery, in which healthy tissue is moved from one part of the body to another.
Reconstructive Plastic Surgery Overview
The goal of reconstructive plastic surgery is to improve body function, but the surgery may also be performed to create a more normal appearance and improve self-esteem.
Nasal Surgery
Nasal surgery includes any surgery performed on the outside or inside of the nose. It is a common type of reconstructive and cosmetic surgery.
Breast Reconstruction
Breast reconstruction surgery involves creating a breast mound that comes as close as possible to the form and appearance of the natural breast.
Cosmetic Plastic Surgery Overview
Cosmetic plastic surgery is performed in order to change one's appearance. For some, it may mean redesigning the body's contour and shape or the elimination of wrinkles. Others may choose varicose vein treatment or breast augmentation.
Breast Augmentation
Breast augmentation is a procedure to reshape the breast in order to make it larger. The procedure can also be performed to reconstruct the breast after breast surgery.
Collagen/Fat Injectable Fillers
Collagen/fat injectable fillers, also called soft-tissue augmentation, is a cosmetic plastic surgery procedure performed to correct wrinkles, depressions in the skin, and/or scarring.
Dermabrasion/Dermaplaning
Dermabrasion involves a surgeon using a high speed rotating brush to remove the top layer of skin. This is done to remove fine wrinkles or minimize scars.
Liposuction
Liposuction removes excess body fat through a suctioning process. It is not a substitute for weight loss, but it does change the body's shape and contour.
Eyelid Lift
This procedure can remove puffiness or bags under the eyes, and can also correct droopy eyelids.
Facelift
During a facelift procedure, excess facial fat is removed, facial muscles are tightened, and the skin is stretched to make a smoother appearance.
Forehead Lift
A forehead lift can correct sagging brows or deep furrows between the eyes. It is often done in conjunction with a facelift, in order to create a smoother facial appearance overall.
Nose Reshaping
This procedure can reduce or increase the size of the nose, narrow the span of the nostrils, change the angle between the nose and upper lip, and/or change the tip or bridge of the nose.
Scar Revision
Scar revision may improve the appearance of a scar or restore function to a part of the body that may have been restricted by the scar.
Tummy Tuck
In a tummy tuck procedure, excess fat and skin are surgically removed from the middle and lower abdomen, and the muscles of the abdomen wall are tightened.
Vein Removal
More than one in five women has some form of varicose condition. Varicose and spider veins can be treated in several ways, including injections, surgery, and laser.
Collagen Injection
A collagen injection is a cosmetic procedure that can soften some signs of aging on your face by putting collagen directly into lines and wrinkles to plump them up.
Laser Varicose Vein Surgery
Sometimes your veins can become swollen and bulging. These are called varicose veins.
Liposuction
Liposuction is a surgical procedure that removes fat from the body. This is done through a hollow metal tube—known as a cannula—that sucks out the fat much like a vacuum.
Rhinoplasty
Rhinoplasty is cosmetic surgery to change the size or shape of your nose

Conditions of Concern to Women

Overview of Anemia
Anemia is a common blood disorder that occurs when there are fewer red blood cells than normal or there is a low concentration of hemoglobin in the blood.
Candidiasis (Yeast Infection)
Candidiasis is an infection caused by yeast on the skin and/or mucous membranes. The symptoms vary depending on the location of the infection.
Colorectal Cancer
Most people who have colorectal cancer are older than 50. This type of cancer is also associated with a diet high in fat and calories and low in fiber.
Hypothyroidism
Hypothyroidism is the condition in which the thyroid is underactive—producing too little thyroid hormone.
Osteoarthritis
Osteoarthritis, the most common form of arthritis, is a chronic, degenerative, joint disease that affects mostly middle-aged and older adults.
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (Lupus)
Most people who have lupus are young women. The effects of the disease can range from mild to severe.
Headache
Headaches vary greatly in terms of pain location, pain intensity, and how frequently they occur.
How a Migraine Happens
One theory says that migraine pain occurs because of waves of activity by groups of excitable brain cells, which trigger chemicals, such as serotonin to constrict blood vessels.
Migraine Headaches
A migraine headache is unique among headaches because it includes symptoms other than pain. Nausea and vomiting, lightheadedness, and sensitivity to light are common with a migraine.
Get the Right Help for Headaches
When seeking treatment for headaches, start with your primary care provider.
Cystocele (Fallen Bladder)
Cystocele is the name for a hernia-like disorder in women that occurs when the wall between the bladder and the vagina weakens, causing the bladder to drop or sag into the vagina.
Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)
Urinary tract infections are a serious, but common, health problem that affects millions of people each year. Women are especially prone to urinary tract infections.
Interstitial Cystitis
Interstitial cystitis is a complex, chronic disorder marked by an inflamed or irritated bladder wall. It can lead to scarring and stiffening of the bladder and decreased bladder capacity.
Fibromyalgia
Detailed information on fibromyalgia, including cause, triggers, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment
Urinary Incontinence
Urinary incontinence is the loss of urine control, or the inability to hold your urine until you can reach a bathroom.

Headache

Headache
Headaches vary greatly in terms of pain location, pain intensity, and how frequently they occur.
How a Migraine Happens
One theory says that migraine pain occurs because of waves of activity by groups of excitable brain cells, which trigger chemicals, such as serotonin to constrict blood vessels.
Migraine Headaches
A migraine headache is unique among headaches because it includes symptoms other than pain. Nausea and vomiting, lightheadedness, and sensitivity to light are common with a migraine.
Get the Right Help for Headaches
When seeking treatment for headaches, start with your primary care provider.

Urinary Problems

Cystocele (Fallen Bladder)
Cystocele is the name for a hernia-like disorder in women that occurs when the wall between the bladder and the vagina weakens, causing the bladder to drop or sag into the vagina.
Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)
Urinary tract infections are a serious, but common, health problem that affects millions of people each year. Women are especially prone to urinary tract infections.
Interstitial Cystitis
Interstitial cystitis is a complex, chronic disorder marked by an inflamed or irritated bladder wall. It can lead to scarring and stiffening of the bladder and decreased bladder capacity.
Urinary Incontinence
Urinary incontinence is the loss of urine control, or the inability to hold your urine until you can reach a bathroom.

Sports Injuries

Exercise
Exercise doesn't have to be vigorous to offer health benefits. Aim for at least 30 minutes of moderate physical activity daily, or on most days of the week.
Sports Injuries: When to Call the Doctor
Sports injuries can be either acute traumatic, which require immediate medical care, or chronic overuse injuries.
Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (Runner's Knee)
Runner's knee occurs when the kneecap rubs against the thighbone as it moves. The condition can be caused by a structural defect or a certain way of walking or running.
Preventing Sports Injuries
Good preventive steps: Warm up before you work out, alternate days for exercising certain muscle groups, and cool down when you're done.
Sports and Fractures
Stress fractures are weak spots or small cracks in the bone caused by continuous overuse. They often occur in the foot after training for basketball, running, and other sports.
Shin Splints
Shin splints involve damage to one of two groups of muscles along the shin bone that cause pain. The location of the shin splint pain depends on which group of muscles is damaged.
Thirst and Dehydration
The average adult has 10 to 12 gallons of water in his or her body, accounting for 60 percent of body weight. That water plays a critical role in nearly every bodily process. And being a quart or two low can affect how you feel.
Exercise and the Aging Person
Exercise is good for people of all ages. It helps lower blood pressure, reduces the risks for falls and serious injuries, and slows the body's loss of muscle and bone mass.
Patellar Tendonitis (Jumper's Knee)
Jumper's knee is also known as patellar tendonitis. It may be caused by overuse of the knee joint, such as frequent jumping on hard surfaces.
Lumbar Strain (Weight Lifter's Back)
A lumbar strain is an injury to the lower back, which results in damaged tendons and muscles that spasm and feel sore.